synapse

synapse
A connection between excitable cells, by which an excitation is conveyed from one to the other. (1) Chemical synapse: one in which an action potential causes the exocytosis of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to ligand-gated ion channels on the postsynaptic cell. These ion channels then affect the resting potential of the postsynaptic cell.
(2) Electrical synapse: one in which electrical connection is made directly through the cytoplasm, via gap junctions.
(3) Rectifying synapse: one in which action potentials can only pass across the synapse in one direction (all chemical and some electrical synapses).
(4) Excitatory synapse: one in which the firing of the presynaptic cell increases the probability of firing of the postsynaptic cell.
(5) Inhibitory synapse: one in which the firing of the presynaptic cell reduces the probability of firing of the postsynaptic cell.

Dictionary of molecular biology. 2004.

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  • synapse — [ sinaps ] n. f. • 1897; angl. synapsis; gr. sunapsis « liaison; point de jonction » 1 ♦ Anat. Région de contact de deux neurones. Synapse neuromusculaire : contact entre un neurone et le muscle qu il innerve. 2 ♦ (1924; synapsis 1904) Biol.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • synapse — junction between two nerve cells, 1899, from Gk. synapsis conjunction, from synaptein to clasp, from syn together + haptein to fasten. Related to APSE (Cf. apse). Introduced by English physiologist Sir Michael Foster (1836 1907) at the suggestion …   Etymology dictionary

  • synapse —  Synapse  Синапс   Конъюгация хромосом, попарное временное сближение гомологичных хромосом, во время которого между ними может произойти обмен гомологичными участками. На этой стадии хромосомы под влиянием разных воздействий легко сжимаются в… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • synapse — ► NOUN ▪ a gap between two nerve cells, across which impulses are conducted through the agency of a neurotransmitter. DERIVATIVES synaptic adjective. ORIGIN Greek sunapsis, from sun together + hapsis joining …   English terms dictionary

  • synapse — [sin′aps΄, si naps′] n. [ModL synapsis: see SYNAPSIS] the minute space between a nerve cell and another nerve cell, a muscle cell, etc., through which nerve impulses are transmitted from one to the other …   English World dictionary

  • Synapse — Pour les articles homonymes, voir synapse (homonymie). Synapse entre deux neurones La synapse (du grec. syn = ensemble; haptein = toucher, saisir; c est à dire connexi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Synapse — Synapsen (Einzahl die Synapse, von gr. σύν, syn = zusammen, ἅπτειν, haptein = ergreifen, fassen, tasten) sind Kontaktstellen zwischen Nervenzellen und anderen Zellen (wie Sinnes , Muskel oder Drüsenzellen) oder zwischen Nervenzellen untereinander …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Synapse — The point of connection usually between two nerve cells. Specifically, a synapse is a specialized junction at which a nerve cell (a neuron) communicates with a target cell. The neuron releases a chemical transmitter (a neurotransmitter) that… …   Medical dictionary

  • Synapse — ◆ Syn|ạp|se 〈f. 19; Biochem.〉 Kontaktstelle der Neuronen [<grch. synapsis „eng verbunden“] ◆ Die Buchstabenfolge syn|a... bzw. syn|ä... kann in Fremdwörtern auch sy|na... bzw. sy|nä... getrennt werden. * * * Sy|n|ạp|se, die; , n [griech.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Synapse —    This is the gap between two neurons, where the nerve impulse is transmitted by a chemical neurotransmitter, such as acetylcholine. Molecules of the neurotransmitter are released into the synapse by the end bulb (axon terminal) of the… …   Historical dictionary of Psychiatry

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